In Augustine's Leaders, Peter Iver Kaufman works from the premise that appropriations of Augustine endorsing contemporary liberal efforts to mix piety and politics are mistaken--that Augustine was skeptical about the prospects for involving Christianity in meaningful political change. His skepticism raises several questions for historians. What roles did one of the most influential Christian theologians set for religious and political leaders? What expectations did he have for emperors, statesmen, bishops, and pastors? What obstacles did he presume they would face? And what pastoral, polemical, and political challenges shaped Augustine's expectations--and frustrations? Augustine's Leaders answers those questions and underscores the leadership its subject provided as he continued to commend humility and compassion in religious and political cultures that seemed to him to reward, above all, celebrity and self-interest.
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aFor who does not know that a man is not condemned on any other ground than because his bad will deserved it, and that no man is saved who has not a good will?In terms of the traditional notion of jus ad bellum (justice of war, that is, the circumstances in which wars can be justly fought), war is a coping mechanism for righteous sovereigns who would ensure that their violent international encounters are minimal, a reflection of the Divine Will to the greatest extent possible, and always justifiedNo man can be a good bishop if he loves his title but not his taskdiscriminates between proper objects of violence (that is, combatants) and noncombatants, such as women, children, the elderly, the clergy, and so forth.; andNot yet then is this fulfilled, He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; but haply it shall be fulfilledBlogs DrOwing to the injustice that is inherent in the mortal state, the former is presently unavoidable, and the latter, in its perfect manifestation, is presently unattainableJus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello2607 South 5th StThis is the principle reason why God condemns those shepherds: they took care of themselves rather than their sheepWilmington: Michael Glazier, Inc., 1983.Christs servants, whether they are kings, or princes, or judges, or soldiers, or provincials, whether rich or poor, freemen or slaves, men or women, are bidden, if need be, to endure the wickedness of an utterly corrupt state, and by that endurance to win for themselves a place of gloryThe Lord will help me to speak the truth if I do not speak on my own authority
Nevertheless, those empowered to levy punishment should take no delight in the taskWe just heard this reading a moment ago, my brothers, and I have decided to speak to you on this passageThose of good will do not manifest cruelty in the proper administration of punishment but, rather, in the withholding of punishmentInstead, they proved to be wayward shepherds only interested in bettering themselvesPride, vanity and the lust for domination entice men toward waging wars and committing all manner of violence, because of mens tendency to do evil as the result of Adams Fall.Thomas Aquinas 5d8a9798ff